Determination of concentration of light chains in serum and urine in patients with multiple myeloma

Izeta Aganović-Mušinović, Lukša Pranjić, Alma Sofo-Hafizović, Sanida Ljaljević


Introduction: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a malignant disease of the hematopoietic system, which is classified as malignant tumor of mature B-lymphocytes according to the classification of WHO. Multiple Myeloma is characterized by an uncontrollable monoclonal proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. The main goal of this study was to present the importance of determining κ and λ chains in serum and urine, as well as their ratio in patients with Multiple Myeloma according to various stages of disease and to compare them with the control group.

Methods: The research was conducted at the Clinic for Hematology, University Clinical Center Sarajevo (UKCS). The study included 82 patients of both genders (41 male, 41 female). The control group included 20 healthy volunteers, both genders. The conducted research was a clinical, cross-sectional, descriptive study.Methods of work were Immunoelectrophoresis - for determining Bence-Jones proteins in urine. Determining the concentrations of free light chains in patients with Multiple Myeloma was done using the nephelometric method in serum and urine.

Results:Patients with Multiple Myeloma had a statistically significantly higher ratio value of κ/λ chains in serum 3,9 (0,57-22,48) when compared to the control group 1,35 (1,15-1,79) (p=0,025), as well as, significantly higher ratio value of λ chains in urine 0,007 (0,003-0,003) in comparison with the control group 0,0 (0,0-0,0) (p<0,001). Patients with Multiple Myeloma had a statistically significantly higher ratio value of κ/λ chains in urine 18,49 (0,27-73,29) in comparison with the control group  of volunteers 0 (0-0) (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The results of our research have shown that the ratio of κ/λ chains in the serum of patients with MM had a significantly higher value 3,9 (0,57-22,48) in comparison with the κ/λ chains in the serum of the control group of volunteers 1,35 (1,15-1,79) (p=0,025).

Key words: Multiple Myeloma, light chains, heavy chains, Immunoelectrophoresis

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