Risk factors assessment and treatment methods in infants with severe bronchiolitis

Amila Hadžimuratović, Hajrija Maksić


Introduction: Bronchiolitis, a viral infection of the lower respiratory
tract, is one of the most substantial health burdens for
infants and young children worldwide. Despite the respiratory
syncytial virus (RSV) being the most common causative agent
of bronchiolitis, there is a number of established risk factors
associated with development of severe bronchiolitis. The aim of
this study was to investigate the prevalence of established risk
factors for severe bronchiolitis among hospitalized infants during
the first year of life, as well as to compare the diagnostic
and treatment methods between pulmology and neonatology
Material and methods: This epidemiological, case-controlled,
retrospective-prospective study included all children aged one
year or younger who were diagnosed with severe bronchiolitis
and hospitalized in Pediatric Clinic of Clinical Center University
of Sarajevo from 1 May 2017 to 30 April 2018 (12
months). Patient data was collected from the patients’ histories
and through interviews with parents and filled in the previously
designed questionnaire.
Results: The research included 95 hospitalized infants diagnosed
with bronchiolitis who were less than 12 months old. Sample
size was homogenized by gender (p>0.05). Patients were predominantly
term children younger than 6 months at the time of
the hospitalization. Admission rate was highest during the first
four mounts of the year (71.6%) with peak in March (23.3%).
The findings show that significant risk factors are presence of
viral disease in the family, smoking during pregnancy and smoking
in the household. Most of the patients (87.3%) received antibiotic
or corticosteroid treatment during hospitalization, with
a significant difference in antibiotic and corticosteroid use between
pulmology and neonatology department (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Infants with comorbidities and negative gestational
and socioeconomic factors more often develop severe form of
bronchiolitis during the first year of life.
Keywords: bronchiolitis, risk factors, infants, hospitalization

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